# Thoughts on Query Languages¶

This document is not part of the official documentation. You may skip it entirely. It contains topics on UnQL, and coSQL that were taken as inspiration for this work; but the information in here does not have other practical effect in xotl.ql.

This document is rather a thinking pad I use when I need to think about query languages in general and how they apply to xotl.ql.

The goal of xotl.ql is not to provide a full implementation of a query language since that implies executing those queries. At the same time, we can’t restrict our interpretation of the language to exactly match any of the languages we find on the referenced articles. Our goal is to provide a foundation on the grounds of the syntactical layout of comprehensions for others to actually implement a full query language for a particular object store.

## UnQL, SQL, and NoSQL (coSQL)¶

There’s a good article [UnQL] that describe several features of a UnQL (Unstructured Query Language), that are of interest to this module. Another article exposes the relation between NoSQL and SQL, and renames the former as coSQL following the categorical tradition since NoSQL is dual to SQL [coSQL2011] [coSQL2012].

In this section we shall explore those articles and will try to relate them with our work on xotl.ql. First, we’ll give a brief review of the work of Buneman et al. on UnQL. And then, explore the ideas of Meijer and Bierman ideas about NoSQL.

The [UnQL] papers uses an edge-labeled rooted directed graph (although they called labeled tree) to represent the data. In this model all the “real values” [1] are encoded in the labels of the graph. The following figure is extracted from the paper:

One may read this graph as:

• It has many “Entries” which may be either “Movies” or “TV Shows”.
• Following the branch to the left of the tree, it has an Entry, which is a Movie. Such a movie has:
• A Title, which is “Casablanca”.
• A Cast, which includes “Bogart”, and “Bacall”.
• A Director, whose attributes are not shown in the image.

How does one tell whether the label of the edge is an attribute name or value? There’s no such thing as attribute name or attribute value in this setting. One may tell a terminal label because the node it points to has no outgoing edges.

In Python, the object model is more elaborate in this regard, but we can figure it as objects, which has attributes, and those attributes’ values are other objects. This is very similar to the edge-labeled graph; but in Python there’s not such thing as a single root. To overcome this, the method get_objects() from the gc module may be used to get all the objects on the Python’s VM; so it may take the place of the root, the objects returned may be the level one [2].

Although there’s no fixed structured (for the graph), there may types that restrict links to/from objects. For instance, it’s highly unlikely (or bizarre) that there will a third edge “down” the node to which an edge with label “Title” is pointing to; i.e. the following schema is not likely to happen:

* -------> * -------------> * ---------> *
Title       "Casablanca"      what?


This is unlikely since we don’t expect strings to have attributes [3]. However, there’s nothing in the UnQL paper that limits us to do so but our own common sense.

The following figure shows with color-layers how the movie database may be interpreted:

The language UnQL uses variable binding and pattern matching. The very first query they offer is the following (I included the braces for better readability):

select t
where {R1 => \t} <- DB


The query select all trees t which are below an edge with label R1 from the root of the DB. If we fix that level 1 labels are actually types this query may be written in xotl.ql like this:

(t for t in this if isinstance(t, R1))


If we don’t make the assumption of level 1 labels being types, then the other option is to assume is an attribute name:

(x.R1 for x in this)


A query with partial selection:

select {Tup => {A => x, B => y}}
where {R1 => Tup => {A =>\x, B => \y, C => 3}} <- DB


Because we can’t do the pattern matching stuff in Python our query is a bit bigger:

({"Tup": {"A": tup.A, "B": tup.B}}
for tup in this
if isinstance(tup, R1) & tup.A & tup.B & (tup.C == 3))


One of the most problematic query they propose is the following:

select {Tup => {Actor => x, Title => y}}
where {Entry => Movie => {Title => \y, Cast => \z}} <- DB,
{\x => _} <- z ∪ (select u where _ => \u <- z), isstring(x)


Our query would be the union of two queries:

from itertools import chain as union
build_tup = lambda actor, title: {"Tup": {"Actor": actor, "Title": title}}
union((build_tup(actor, movie.title)
for movie in this
if is_instance(movie, Movie)
for actor in movie.cast if is_instance(actor, basestring)),

(build_tup(actor, movie.title)
for movie in this if is_instance(movie, Movie)
for actor_group in movie.cast
for actor in actor_group if is_instance(actor, basestring))
)


Warning

We’re abusing of our query language here: chain can’t be used directly over the generator expressions.

In [coSQL2011] the authors only focused on key-value stores for noSQL databases. Although they claim that:

While we don’t often think of it this way, the RAM for storing object graphs is actually a key-value store where keys are addresses (l-values) and values are the data stored at some address in memory (r-values). Languages such as C# and Java make no distinction between r-values and l-values, unlike C or C++, where the distinction is explicit. In C, the pointer dereference operator *p retrieves the value stored at address p in the implicit global store.

In fact, this model is quite suitable to represent the labeled tree model of [UnQL]. Notice that the type of the labeled trees is informally described as:

a set of pairs of labels and trees.

We can see that labels may be the keys, and the trees may be encoded as references.

## Generator Token¶

A generator token is related to the <- DB in the UnQL syntax, it’s related to the FROM clause in SQL and LinQ. It represents from where the objects are drawn. SQLAlchemy’s expression language has a similarity with xotl.ql’s Query API, it’s select() function, does not requires an explicit declaration of FROM, because it gathers the table from the SELECT-ed columns.

This is quite similar to the idea of having the expressions in the selection

## Footnotes¶

 [1] Of course, the edges (not its labels) carry very important information: from which object such a label is drawn and to what object it points. In this sense the labeled-edge carries all the information, and if the nodes are somehow identified, it carries the same information as the single Triplet in a RDF store.
 [2] Since they are all the objects in the VM, we actually get a one-level only tree with edges between the siblings. But we can search for objects of specific types to be the level one objects.
 [3] I know, I know... Python’s string do have attribute; but what’s the point in bringing them to this debate?